The M.A.R. in Second Temple Judaism is concentrated on the Second Temple and Rabbinic periods (approximately 500 BCE to 500 CE). This program is a cooperative one that brings together students and faculty from YDS and from the Department of Religious Studies in the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. The period in question covers the later stages of the Hebrew Bible and the formative period of both Rabbinic Judaism and Christianity. The centuries between the last books of the Hebrew canon (early second century BCE) and the emergence of both Rabbinic Judaism and Christianity (by the second century CE) are especially crucial for the development of both traditions. This program overlaps with the concentrations in Hebrew Bible and New Testament but is distinguished by its emphasis on noncanonical Jewish material and on the early rabbinic tradition.