The M.A.R. in Second Temple Judaism is concentrated on the Second Temple and Rabbinic periods (approximately 500 B.C.E. to 500 C.E.). This program is a cooperative one that brings together students and faculty from YDS and from the Department of Religious Studies in the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. The period in question covers the later stages of the Hebrew Bible and the formative period of both Rabbinic Judaism and Christianity. The centuries between the last books of the Hebrew canon (early second century B.C.E.) and the emergence of both Rabbinic Judaism and Christianity (by the second century C.E.) are especially crucial for the development of both traditions. This program then overlaps with the M.A.R. in Bible but is distinguished by its emphasis on noncanonical Jewish material and on the early rabbinic tradition.